Metrics on usage

As a global database, GEMStat data is regularly requested by a wide range of users from all over the world. In the following you find background information about data requests and our users.

Which countries and parameters are most requested?

The comparison of data requests (i.e. data provided to users by the GEMS/Water Data Centre) shows that between 2015 and 2018 most data requests referred to data from Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific and Africa. Among the five most-requested countries are currently Brazil, Japan, India, China, Morocco and Argentina.

With respect to the type of parameters requested, between 2015 and 2018 mostly chemical and physical parameters were provided. Among the most requested parameters were Oxygen Demand, pH, Oxygen, Temperature, and Suspended Solids.

What is the geographical and professional background of our users?

GEMStat data is requested by a wide range of countries and sectors. Currently most data requests come from Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and North America. Most inquiries originate from academia and are made by students (including PhD students) and researchers. At regular intervals, however, we also receive requests from industry and different organisations.

GEMStat citations in the literature:


Heal KV, Bartosova A, Hipsey MR, et al. (2021): Water quality: the missing dimension of water in the water–energy–food nexus. Hydrological Sciences Journal: 1-14,

Jankowski KJ, Mejia FH, Blaszczak JR, et al. (2021): Aquatic ecosystem metabolism as a tool in environmental management. WIREs Water: e1521,

Kaushal SS, Likens GE, Pace ML, et al. (2021): Freshwater salinization syndrome: from emerging global problem to managing risks. Biogeochemistry,

Kleinschroth F, Winton RS, Calamita E, et al. (2021): Living with floating vegetation invasions. Ambio 50: 125-137,

Mamani Larico AJ, Rendón Dávila VO, Figueroa Tapia ÁM, et al. (2021): Bioenergetic and water quality modeling for eutrophication assessment of El Pañe Reservoir, Peru. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology 21: 114-128,

Rotteveel L, Sterling SM (2021): The Surface Water Chemistry (SWatCh) database: A standardized global database of water chemistry to facilitate large-sample hydrological research. Earth System Science Data Discussions 2021: 1-17,

Shukla T, Sen IS, Boral S, et al. (2021): A Time-Series Record during COVID-19 Lockdown Shows the High Resilience of Dissolved Heavy Metals in the Ganga River. Environmental Science & Technology Letters 8: 301-306,

Vega-Rodríguez MA, Pérez CJ, Reder K, et al. (2021): A stage-based approach to allocating water quality monitoring stations based on the WorldQual model: The Jubba River as a case study. Science of The Total Environment 762: 144162,

Virro H, Amatulli G, Kmoch A, et al. (2021): GRQA: Global River Water Quality Archive. Earth System Science Data Discussions 2021: 1-30,


Alvarez-Risco A, Del-Aguila-Arcentales S, Rosen MA (2020): Management of Water. In: Alvarez-Risco A, Rosen M, Del-Aguila-Arcentales S,  Marinova D (eds.) Building Sustainable Cities: Social, Economic and Environmental Factors: 217-230.

Arreguin-Cortes FI, Saavedra-Horita JR, Rodriguez-Varela JM, et al. (2020): State level water security indices in Mexico. Sustainable Earth 3: 9,

Barik SK, Kar BB, Dixit PR, et al. (2020): Water Quality Index as a critical tool for an assessment of biodiversity of inland water ecosystem. Journal of Water Engineering 1: 44-54.

Carena L, Vione D (2020): Mapping the Photochemistry of European Mid-Latitudes Rivers: An Assessment of Their Ability to Photodegrade Contaminants. Molecules 25: 424,

De Filippis G, Piscitelli P, Castorini IF, et al. (2020): Water Quality Assessment: A Quali-Quantitative Method for Evaluation of Environmental Pressures Potentially Impacting on Groundwater, Developed under the M.I.N.O.Re. Project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17: 1835,

Denisova I, Efimova L, Sharapova E, et al. (2020): Distribution of nutrient elements and organic carbon in the lower reaches of the Selenga River. Limnology and Freshwater Biology 4: 834-835,

Dickens C, McCartney M, Tickner D, et al. (2020): Evaluating the Global State of Ecosystems and Natural Resources: Within and Beyond the SDGs. Sustainability 12: 7381,

Fabre C, Sauvage S, Probst JL, et al. (2020): Global-scale daily riverine DOC fluxes from lands to the oceans with a generic model. Global and Planetary Change 194: 103294,

Harrison R (2020): Environmental Pollutant Exposures and Public Health. Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hatono M, Yoshimura K (2020): Development of a global sediment dynamics model. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 7: 59,

Kaushal SS, Wood KL, Galella JG, et al. (2020): Making ‘chemical cocktails’ – Evolution of urban geochemical processes across the periodic table of elements. Applied Geochemistry 119: 104632,

McDowell RW, Noble A, Pletnyakov P, et al. (2020): Global mapping of freshwater nutrient enrichment and periphyton growth potential. Scientific Reports 10: 3568,

McDowell RW, Noble A, Pletnyakov P, et al. (2020): Global database of diffuse riverine nitrogen and phosphorus loads and yields. Geoscience Data Journal 00: 1-12,

Metcalfe CD, Collins P, Menone ML, et al. (2020): The Paraná River Basin: Managing water resources to sustain ecosystem services. Routledge, Taylor and Francis, London.

Musonge PSL (2020): Ecological Assessment of Rivers and Streams in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda. PhD thesis, Ghent University.

Núñez M, Finkbeiner M (2020): A Regionalised Life Cycle Assessment Model to Globally Assess the Environmental Implications of Soil Salinization in Irrigated Agriculture. Environmental Science & Technology 54: 3082-3090,

Pandit DN, Kumari R, Shitanshu SK (2020): A comparative assessment of the status of Surajkund and Rani Pond, Aurangabad, Bihar, India using overall Index of Pollution and Water Quality Index. Acta Ecologica Sinica,

Polyakova K, Garanis L (2020): Building local indicators for more evidence-based policy making in the water and sanitation sector in Bomet county, Kenya. MSc thesis, University of Geneva.

Rotteveel L (2020): Trends, Patterns, and Drivers of Freshwater Aluminium Concentrations: Revisiting the Conceptual Model of Freshwater Acidification. MSc thesis, Dalhousie University.

Russ JD, Zaveri ED, Damania R, et al. (2019): Salt of the Earth: Quantifying the Impact of Water Salinity on Global Agricultural Productivity. World Bank, Washington, D.C.,

Topp SN, Pavelsky TM, Jensen D, et al. (2020): Research Trends in the Use of Remote Sensing for Inland Water Quality Science: Moving Towards Multidisciplinary Applications. Water 12: 169,


Alcocer J, Bernal-Brooks FW (2019): Physical and Chemical Characterization of Inland Waters. In: Ibáñez AL (ed) Mexican Aquatic Environments: A General View from Hydrobiology to Fisheries: 1-41.

Ayana E (2019): Determinants of Declining Water Quality. World Bank, Washington, D.C.,

Chanapathi T, Thatikonda S (2019): Fuzzy-Based Regional Water Quality Index for Surface Water Quality Assessment. Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste 23: 04019010,

Dadson SJ, Penning‐Rowsell EC, Garrick DE, et al. (2019): Charting the World’s Water Future? Water Science, Policy, Management: A Global Challenge: 363-366.

Dallosch MA (2019): Optimal algorithms for deriving estimates of phytoplankton biomass in lakes from LANDSAT satellite imagery. MSc thesis, The University of Western Ontario.

Damania R, Desbureaux S, Rodella A-S, et al. (2019): Quality Unknown: The Invisible Water Crisis. World Bank, Washington, D.C.,

Evans AEV, Mateo-Sagasta J, Qadir M, et al. (2019): Agricultural water pollution: key knowledge gaps and research needs. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36: 20-27,

Haque SJ, Onodera S-i, Shimizu Y (2019): Surface Water Nitrogen Load Due to Food Production-Supply System in South Asian Megacities: A Model-based Estimation. In: Al-Naggar AMM (ed): Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences.

Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Derx J, et al. (2019): Priorities for developing a modelling and scenario analysis framework for waterborne pathogen concentrations in rivers worldwide and consequent burden of disease. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36: 28-38,

Karim R-A, Deschênes L, Bulle C (2019): Regionalized aquatic ecotoxicity characterization factor for zinc emitted to soil accounting for speciation and the transfer through groundwater. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 24: 2008-2022,

Li M, Peng C, Zhou X, et al. (2019): Modeling Global Riverine DOC Flux Dynamics From 1951 to 2015. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11: 514-530,

Li X, Zhao N, Jin R, et al. (2019): Internet of Things to network smart devices for ecosystem monitoring. Science Bulletin 64: 1234-1245,

Pradinaud C, Núñez M, Roux P, et al. (2019): The issue of considering water quality in life cycle assessment of water use. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 24: 590-603,

Sellers S, Ebi KL, Hess J (2019): Climate Change, Human Health, and Social Stability: Addressing Interlinkages. Environmental Health Perspectives 127: 045002,

Tang T, Strokal M, van Vliet MTH, et al. (2019): Bridging global, basin and local-scale water quality modeling towards enhancing water quality management worldwide. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36: 39-48,

Whitehead P, Dolk M, Peters R, et al. (2019): Water Quality Modelling, Monitoring, and Management. In: Dadson SJ, Garrick DE, Penning‐Rowsell EC, Hall JW, Hope R,  Hughes J (eds.): Water Science, Policy, and Management:  A Global Challenge: 55-73.


Ahdab YD, Thiel GP, Böhlke JK, et al. (2018): Minimum energy requirements for desalination of brackish groundwater in the United States with comparison to international datasets. Water Research 141: 387-404,

Chirgwin W, Maheshwari BL (2018): Evaluating the suitability of water quality indices for the health of urban waterways: a case study of the Parramatta River. Water e-journal 3,

Guppy L, Uyttendaele P, Villholth KG, et al. (2018): Groundwater and sustainable development goals: Analysis of interlinkagesUNU-INWEH Report Series, Issue 04, Hamilton, Canada.

IOCCG (2018): Earth Observations in Support of Global Water Quality Monitoring. In: Greb S, Dekker A,  Binding C (eds.): Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, Dartmouth, Canada, pp. 125.

Khan AU, Jiang J, Wang P (2018): Decadal water quality variations at three typical basins of Mekong, Murray and Yukon. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 121: 032009,

Khan AU, Wang P, Jiang J, et al. (2018): Long-term trends and probability distributions of river water quality variables and their relationships with climate elasticity characteristics. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190: 648,

Lyon-Marion BA, Mittelman AM, Rayner J, et al. (2018): Impact of chlorination on silver elution from ceramic water filters. Water Research 142: 471-479,

Ortigara ARC, Kay M, Uhlenbrook S (2018): A Review of the SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 from an Education, Training, and Research Perspective. Water 10: 1353,

Payen S, Basset-Mens C, Colin F, et al. (2018): Inventory of field water flows for agri-food LCA: critical review and recommendations of modelling options. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 23: 1331-1350,

Philipps RR, Xu X, Mills GL, et al. (2018): Impact of natural organic matter and increased water hardness on DGT prediction of copper bioaccumulation by yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Pollution 241: 451-458,


Adu-Manu KS, Tapparello C, Heinzelman W, et al. (2017): Water Quality Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Research Directions. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks 13: Article 4,

Fischer S, Pietroń J, Bring A, et al. (2017): Present to future sediment transport of the Brahmaputra River: reducing uncertainty in predictions and management. Regional Environmental Change 17: 515-526,

Gruiz K (2017): Monitoring and early warning in environmental management. In: Gruiz K, Meggyes T,  Fenyvesi E (eds.): Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management: 3 Site Assessment and Monitoring Tools: 99.

Hassall G, van den Belt M (2017): Global sustainability: policy networks for the Sustainable Development Goals. Policy Quarterly 13,

Hering JG (2017): Managing the ‘Monitoring Imperative’ in the Context of SDG Target 6.3 on Water Quality and Wastewater. Sustainability 9: 1572,

Karthe D, Chalov S, Moreido V, et al. (2017): Assessment of runoff, water and sediment quality in the Selenga River basin aided by a web-based geoservice. Water Resources 44: 399-416,

Khan AU, Jiang J, Sharma A, et al. (2017): How Do Terrestrial Determinants Impact the Response of Water Quality to Climate Drivers?—An Elasticity Perspective on the Water–Land–Climate Nexus. Sustainability 9: 2118,

Khan AU, Jiang J, Wang P, et al. (2017): Influence of watershed topographic and socio-economic attributes on the climate sensitivity of global river water quality. Environmental Research Letters 12: 104012,

Liu J, Yang H, Gosling SN, et al. (2017): Water scarcity assessments in the past, present, and future. Earth’s Future 5: 545-559,

Metcalfe C, Guppy L, Qadir M (2017): Global barriers to improving water quality: a critical review. UNU-INWEH Report Series, Issue 02, Hamilton, Canada.

Ouedraogo I (2017): Mapping groundwater vulnerability at the pan-African scale. PhD thesis, UCL-Université Catholique de Louvain.

Pérez CJ, Vega-Rodríguez MA, Reder K, et al. (2017): A Multi-Objective Artificial Bee Colony-based optimization approach to design water quality monitoring networks in river basins. Journal of Cleaner Production 166: 579-589,

Thorslund J, Jarsjö J, Wällstedt T, et al. (2017): Speciation and hydrological transport of metals in non-acidic river systems of the Lake Baikal basin: Field data and model predictions. Regional Environmental Change 17: 2007-2021,

2016 and before

Abbaspour S (2011): Water quality in developing countries, South Asia, South Africa, water quality management and activities that cause water pollution. 2011 International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering, Singapore, pp. 94-102.

Boulay A-M, Motoshita M, Pfister S, et al. (2015): Analysis of water use impact assessment methods (part A): evaluation of modeling choices based on a quantitative comparison of scarcity and human health indicators. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 20: 139-160,

Brainerd E, Menon N (2014): Seasonal effects of water quality: The hidden costs of the Green Revolution to infant and child health in India. Journal of Development Economics 107: 49-64,

Bring A, Destouni G (2009): Hydrological and hydrochemical observation status in the pan-Arctic drainage basin. Polar Research 28: 327-338,

Davies-Colley RJ, Smith DG, Ward RC, et al. (2011): Twenty Years of New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network: Benefits of Careful Design and Consistent Operation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 47: 750-771,

Donnelly C, Arheimer B, Capell R, et al. (2013): Regional overview of nutrient load in Europe–challenges when using a large-scale model approach, E-HYPEH04, IAHS-IAPSO-IASPEI Assembly, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Erisman JW, van Grinsven H, Grizzetti B, et al. (2011): The European Nitrogen Assessment: Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives. In: Sutton MA, Howard CM, Erisman JW, Billen G, Bleeker A, Grennfelt P, van Grinsven H,  Grizzetti B (eds.): Nitrogen in Europe: the present position: 9-31.

Gómez-Bombarelli R, González-Pérez M, Calle E, et al. (2011): Reactivity of mucohalic acids in water. Water Research 45: 714-720,

Grosse J, Bombar D, Doan HN, et al. (2010): The Mekong River plume fuels nitrogen fixation and determines phytoplankton species distribution in the South China Sea during low and high discharge season. Limnology and Oceanography 55: 1668-1680,

Holley C, Sinclair D, L. E (2016): Regulation, Technology, and Water: Buy-In as a Precondition for Effective Real-Time Advanced Monitoring, Compliance, and Enforcement. George Washington Journal of Energy and Environmental Law 7: 52.

Lehmann A, Giuliani G, Ray N, et al. (2014): Reviewing innovative Earth observation solutions for filling science-policy gaps in hydrology. Journal of Hydrology 518: 267-277,

Li S, Lu XX, Bush RT (2014): Chemical weathering and CO2 consumption in the Lower Mekong River. Science of The Total Environment 472: 162-177,

Makapela L, Newby T, Gibson L, et al. (2015): Review of the use of Earth Observations Remote Sensing in Water Resource Management in South Africa. Report KV329/15, Pretoria.

McCrackin ML, Harrison JA, Compton JE (2014): Factors influencing export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by major rivers: A new, seasonal, spatially explicit, global model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 28: 269-285,

McDowell RW, Hill SJ (2015): Speciation and distribution of organic phosphorus in river sediments: a national survey. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15: 2369-2379,

Raptis CE, van Vliet MTH, Pfister S (2016): Global thermal pollution of rivers from thermoelectric power plants. Environmental Research Letters 11: 104011,

Sigman H (2014): Decentralization and Environmental Quality: An International Analysis of Water Pollution Levels and Variation. Land Economics 90: 114-130,

Soomro M, Khokhar M, Hussain W, et al. (2011): Drinking water quality challenges in Pakistan: 17-28.

Srebotnjak T, Carr G, de Sherbinin A, et al. (2012): A global Water Quality Index and hot-deck imputation of missing data. Ecological Indicators 17: 108-119,

Thorslund J, Jarsjö J, Chalov SR, et al. (2012): Gold mining impact on riverine heavy metal transport in a sparsely monitored region: the upper Lake Baikal Basin case. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14: 2780-2792,